The school inspector criticizes a young teacher for the deficiencies of her first-grade pupils, but is more or less positive about all the others. The children straggle in to school from cottages scattered around the entire valley. They are so few that they all take one and the same class. The teacher praises and scolds the children in keeping with the inspector's evaluation. Her wretched first-grade consists of a single pupil, Martin. The lively and honest boy is embarrassed about the criticism and prefers to interrupt the teacher by asking her lots of questions. He also keeps calling her aunty Šindelářová, although she has forbidden him to do so. Everything seems to be a problem for him - writing, reading and calculation. One spring afternoon, the teacher pays a visit to the cottage where Martin lives. She is surprised to see the boy playing school and reciting entire poems, as well as counting and reading. The teacher understands that Martin is probably ashamed to speak before his older friends at school, who mock the baby of the family, and so the next day she tests him before an empty class.